Extensive research conducted over the past few years has led to the emergence of new classes of polymers which feature a repetitvely branched three-dimensional morphology - these polymers are called dendrimers, or cascade polymers or arbore. These are polymers in which several chains cascade from a single chain and new chains repetitively branch out from those, resulting in a tree-like structure. Dendrimers are molecules which have a sphere-like shape and consist of a core located in the geometric center surrounded by successive layers with increasing radii called dendrimer generations, which correspond to the sequential number of monomer molecule binding reactions. The final layer creates an external shell made up of surface functional groups. Inside the dendrimer is free space or the so-called internal network which can be used to for example transport small molecules.
Ionic liquids have proven to be the most promising group of chemical compounds of the past few decades. They are compounds made up exclusively of ions which retain a liquid state in temperatures below 100°C. Due to their unique properties, such as very low vapor pressure, high thermal stability or a large electrochemical window, they are used in many branches of the chemical industry. The greatest advantage of ionic liquids is their designability and multi-functionality. Designable means that you can control the properties of the compound through proper choice of cations and anions as needed. On the other hand, ionic liquids are multi-functional as many functions (e.g. solvent and catalyst) can be combined in a single compound, which allows for the use of a single molecular entity rather than a mix of compounds. In addition, ionic liquids are non-volatile as well as thermally and chemically stable, allowing for their multiple recycling.